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KEY INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS DOCUMENTS AND SLOVENIA'S REPORTS

I. UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS

 

General universal instruments

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  • Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  • Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  • Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Thematic documents on human rights

  • International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
  • Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict
  • Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
  • Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Universal human rights instruments are key documents on human rights, the most important legal documents being the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights with two optional protocols and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. These three documents are generally called the "international human rights charter".

 

All states parties to the UN international human rights treaties are obliged to report regularly on how the provisions of the instruments are being implemented. The core document is an integral part of all periodic reports on particular instruments submitted by states parties. It is a reference document outlining the general human rights situation in a particular state.

 

Links:

Core Document Forming Part of the Reports of the Republic of Slovenia to the UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies (August 2014) - eng

 

1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights – UDHR

 

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948. The Declaration defines basic human rights; it is not legally binding, but serves as a basis for all international legally binding human rights instruments. 

 

2. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

 

"Observations of the Republic of Slovenia on Paragraph 15 of the concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee regarding the third report"

 

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was signed on 16 December 1966 in New York, and entered into force on 23 March 1976. It has been in force in Slovenia since 1 July 1992 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 35/92; International Treaties No. 9/92). 

 

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) contains binding commitments for state parties to ensure civil and political rights, the so-called first generation of human rights. The ICCPR protects the inherent rights of human beings to life, and stipulates that no one shall be subjected to torture, slavery, arbitrary arrest or detention, forced or compulsory labour or deprived of fundamental freedoms (such as freedom of movement, expression and association).  

 

The ICCPR is divided into six parts which define various rights (rights to self-determination and civil and political rights), the right of victims to compensation, safeguarding gender equality and the general obligations of states parties regarding the implementation of the Covenant’s provisions. The Covenant also prohibits verbal abuse. Article 28 provides for the establishment of a Human Rights Committee.   

 

Human Rights Committee (Committee) is a United Nations body of eighteen renowned legal experts of high moral character and recognised competence in the field of human rights. It is intended as a control mechanism of the implementation of the civil and political rights enshrined in the ICCPR. The Human Rights Committee’s task is to supervise and monitor the implementation of Covenant obligations by states parties by reviewing the periodic reports submitted by states parties to the Committee. Article 40 of the ICCPR stipulates that states parties undertake to submit reports on the measures they take to implement the provisions contained therein. Delegations of state parties present the report before the Committee. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the state party in the form of "concluding observations", and points out potential violations.  Another important task of the Committee is the elaboration and publication of interpretations of particular rights arising from the ICCPR in the form of general comments. The Committee's general comments may also address wider, cross-cutting issues.

 

Links:

Reports submitted by the Republic of Slovenia on the implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights:

Initial report

Second periodic report

Third periodic report 

 

Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee on the Republic of Slovenia:

Concluding observations on the initial report

Concluding observations on the second periodic report

Concluding observations on the third periodic report

 

2.1 Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

 

The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was signed on 16 December 1966 in New York, and entered into force on 23 March 1976. It has been in force in Slovenia since 18 May 1993.

 

The Optional Protocol enables the Human Rights Committee to receive and consider communications from individuals who claim to be victims of violations of any of the rights in the Covenant who have exhausted all available domestic remedies.

 

2.2 Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty

 

The Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aimed at the abolition of the death penalty, was signed on 15 December 1989 in New York, and entered into force on 11 July 1991. It has been in force in Slovenia since 17 December 1993.

 

By signing the Second Optional Protocol to the Covenant, states parties are obliged to abolish the death penalty.

 

3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights was signed on 16 December 1966 in New York, and entered into force on 3 January 1976. It has been in force in Slovenia since 1 July 1992 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 35/92; International Treaties No. 9/92).

 

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), like the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and translates its content into legally binding provisions. States signatories to the ICESCR are bound to ensure economic, social and cultural rights, the so-called second generation of human rights.

 

The ICESCR defines various economic, social and cultural rights, among them the right to self-determination, the duty of state parties to ensure, without discrimination, the above-mentioned rights, including the right to work, equal pay for equal work, safe working conditions and periodic holidays with pay, the right to form trade unions and join the trade union of one's choice, the right of everyone to social security, rights of the family (particularly mothers and children) to state protection and assistance, the right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food, clothing and housing, the right to education and the right to take part in cultural life.

 

3.1 Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is the body that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by its states parties. Unlike the Human Rights Committee, the CESCR was not established under the Covenant, but under the ECOSOC Resolution. According to the Covenant, the supervisory function was assigned to the ECOSOC, but upon the adoption of the Resolution in 1985, this role was assumed by the CESCR.

 

The Committee consists of eighteen renowned legal experts of high moral character and recognised competence in the field of human rights. The Committee monitors the implementation of the ICESCR provisions by state parties; in line with Articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, state parties are required to submit periodic reports on the measures which they have adopted and present the report to the Committee. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of "concluding observations", and points out potential violations, if necessary.

 

Another important task of the Committee is the elaboration and publication of interpretations of particular rights arising from the ICESCR in the form of general comments. The Committee's general comments may address particular provisions of the ICESCR or wider, cross-cutting issues.

 

Links:

Reports submitted by the Republic of Slovenia on the implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Initial report

Second periodic report

 

Concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the Republic of Slovenia:

Concluding observations on the initial report

Concluding observations on the second periodic report

 

3.2 Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights was adopted by the UN General Assembly on the International Human Rights Day on 10 December 2008. It was opened for signing on 24 September 2009, and has been in force since 5 May 2013. Slovenia signed the Optional Protocol as one of the first UN Member States on 24 September 2009, but has not yet been ratified.

 

The Protocol enables the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to deal with individual complaints related to violations of economic, social and cultural rights specified in the ICESCR when all available domestic remedies have been exhausted.

 

4. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

 

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 7 March 1966 in New York, and entered into force on 4 January 1969. The Republic of Slovenia adopted the Convention with the Act on succession on 1 July 1992, on the basis of which it took effect in Slovenia on the day of the declaration of its independence, 25 June 1991.

 

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is an instrument of the so-called third generation of human rights, which contains binding commitments for states parties to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination, and establishes the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, which is an individual complaints mechanism. The provisions of the Convention stipulate that states parties shall implement policies to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination, declare an offence punishable by law the dissemination of ideas based on racial superiority or hatred, and ensure equal enjoyment or exercise of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.

 

The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination was the first control mechanism established by the UN to examine the activities and measures for meeting the obligations defined in human rights treaties by states parties. The establishment of the Committee is foreseen in Article 8 of the Convention. Through periodic reporting by states parties, the Committee's 18 members monitor the implementation of the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination in states parties, and can deal with complaints submitted by citizens of states which have submitted a declaration pursuant to Article 14 of the Convention recognising this competence of the Committee.

 

Another important task of the Committee is the elaboration and publication of interpretations of particular rights arising from the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination in the form of general recommendations. These may address particular provisions of the Convention or wider, cross-cutting issues.

 

Links:

Reports of the Republic of Slovenia on the Implementation of the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination: 

Initial, second, third and fourth periodic reports

Fifth periodic report

Sixth and seventh periodic reports

Eighth to eleventh periodic reports

 

Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination on the Republic of Slovenia:

Concluding observations on the initial, second, third and fourth periodic reports

Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report

Concluding observations on the sixth and seventh periodic reports

Comments by the Republic of Slovenia to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination's concluding observations regarding the sixth and seventh periodic reports

Concluding observations on the eighth to eleventh periodic reports of Slovenia

 

4.1 Declaration pursuant to Article 14 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

 

In 2001, the Republic of Slovenia (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 70/2001, 31 August 2001) made a declaration pursuant to Article 14 of the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination recognising the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from individuals or groups of individuals within its jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation of any of the rights in this Convention by the Republic of Slovenia. The Committee is authorised to consider those communications from the Republic of Slovenia which it ascertains are not being addressed in any other international procedure. The declaration entered into force on 1 September 2001.

 

5. Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women

 

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination against Women was adopted on 18 December 1979 in New York, and entered into force on 3 September 1981. It has been in force in Slovenia since 1 July 1992.

 

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is a kind of 'women's rights charter', and more specifically defines the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and two fundamental covenants in terms of women's rights. The Convention imposes an obligation on states parties to adopt measures and policies to eliminate discrimination against women, pass legislation to suppress all forms of traffic in women and the exploitation of prostitution of women, grant women the right to vote and to participate in all government and non-government bodies, grant women the same rights as men to acquire, change or retain their nationality and the nationality of their children, grant women equal rights and access to education and employment as well as equal access to health care and equality before the law. The Convention also establishes the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).

 

The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, as a control mechanism for implementing the Convention, was established pursuant to Article 17 thereof; in line with Article 18, states parties submit to the Committee periodic reports about progress on implementing the provisions of the Convention. The Committee is composed of twenty-three independent experts on women's issues and renowned legal experts. In addition to its monitoring function, the Committee acts as an early warning mechanism and examines inter-state and individual complaints.

 

Another important task of the Committee is the elaboration and publication of interpretations of particular rights arising from the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women in the form of general recommendations. These may address particular provisions of the Convention or wider, cross-cutting issues.

 

Links:

Reports of the Republic of Slovenia on the Implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women: 

Initial report

Second periodic report

Third periodic report

Fourth periodic report

Fifth and sixth periodic reports 

 

Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on the Republic of Slovenia:

Concluding observations on the initial report

Concluding observations on the second and third periodic reports

Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report

Concluding observations on the fifth and sixth periodic reports

 

5.1 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women

 

The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women was signed on 6 October 1999, and has been in force since 22 December 2000. In Slovenia, it has been in force since 15 May 2004 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 48/2004, 30 April 2004; International Treaties No. 15/2004).

 

The Optional Protocol makes it possible for individuals and groups to submit to the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women complaints regarding violations of the provisions contained in the Convention. The Committee may deal only with complaints about which it ascertains that all internal legal remedies have been exhausted, or if their application has been unduly postponed or if these remedies are not expected to yield an efficient solution. The Protocol also authorises the Committee to launch investigations of mass and systematic violations of women's rights in a state party.

 

6. Convention on the Rights of the Child

 

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child was signed on 20 November 1989 in New York, and entered into force on 2 September 1990. It has been in force in Slovenia since 1 July 1992, and is the most widely ratified international human rights treaty in history.

 

The Convention, covering young people aged up to 18 years, contains four leading principles: obligation of states to take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members; the best interests of the child must be a primary consideration; every child has the inherent right to life and the right to freedom of expression. Also among the most important provisions are the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly, the right to health care and to education.

 

In addition, pursuant to Article 43, the Convention established the Committee on the Rights of the Child composed of eighteen independent experts. The Committee is a control mechanism for the implementation of the Convention, while implementation of particular provisions is monitored through the system of periodic reporting by states parties. Furthermore, the Committee monitors the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography in states parties. Since April 2014, in line with the (Third) Optional Protocol to the Convention on a communications procedure, the Committee is responsible for dealing with complaints regarding violations submitted by individuals or groups of individuals, initiating inquiries about well-founded indications of serious or systematic violations of children's rights or leading the procedure about a violation in a state party submitted by another party to the Protocol. As with Optional Protocols 1 and 2, the Committee can take action with regard to a state party to the Protocol.

 

Links:

Reports of the Republic of Slovenia on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

Initial report
Second periodic report

Third and fourth periodic reports

Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on the Republic of Slovenia:

Concluding observations on the initial report
Concluding observations on the second periodic report

Concluding observations on the third periodic report

 

6.1 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict

 

The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict was signed on 25 May 2000, and entered into force on 12 February 2002. It has been in force in Slovenia since 17 August 2004 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 85/2004, 2 August 2004 – International Treaties, No. 23-94/2004).

 

The Protocol is based on a number of documents. The first standards for prohibiting the recruitment of children for military purposes were established in the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Convention in 1949, and later in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), which set the minimal age for recruitment and involvement of children in armed conflict at 15.

 

In 1994, the UN Commission on Human Rights established a working group to draft the Protocol. The Protocol prohibits forced or compulsory recruitment of children under 18 into military units for use in armed conflict; Article 8 stipulates that each state party shall, within two years following the entry into force of the present Protocol for that state party, submit a report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child on the measures it has taken to implement the provisions of the Protocol.

 

Links:

Report of the Republic of Slovenia on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict

 

6.2 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

 

The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography was signed on 25 May 2000, and entered into force on 18 January 2002. In Slovenia, it has been in force since 17 August 2004 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 85/2004, 2 August 2004 – International Treaties, No. 23-94/2004).

 

The Protocol supplements the Convention on the Rights of the Child with more detailed provisions and definitions of the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, stipulating that states parties shall define these practices as criminal acts. It also defines standards for prosecution of perpetrators, for the prevention of such acts and for helping victims, and outlines the framework for enhanced international cooperation in this field (particularly in prosecution of these criminal acts). Pursuant to Article 12 of the Protocol, states parties are required to submit a report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child no later than two years after its entry into force.

 

Links:

Report of the Republic of Slovenia on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

 

7. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment


The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was signed on 10 December 1984 in New York, and entered into force on 26 June 1987. In Slovenia, it has been in force since 14 April 1993 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 24/93; International Treaties No. 7/93).

 

The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment upgrades Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which prohibit torture. The Convention stipulates that each state party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction. It further stipulates that no state party shall expel, return ("refouler") or extradite a person to another state if substantial grounds exist for believing that he/she would be at risk of being tortured. Article 10 of the Convention stipulates that each state party shall ensure that education and information on the prohibition against torture are fully included in the training of law enforcement personnel, civil or military, medical personnel, public officials and other persons who may be involved in the custody, interrogation or treatment of any individual subjected to any form of arrest, detention or imprisonment. Wherever any reasonable grounds exist for believing that an act of torture has been committed, each state party shall ensure that its competent authorities proceed to a prompt and impartial investigation.

 

Article 17 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment establishes the Committee against Torture, composed of 10 independent experts. The Committee monitors the implementation of the provisions of the Convention through a system of periodic reporting of states parties. The Committee also deals with complaints received from individuals pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention about those countries which recognise the Committee's competence.

 

Links:

Reports of the Republic of Slovenia on the Implementation of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment:

Initial report

Second periodic report

Third periodic report

 

Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture on the Republic of Slovenia: 

Concluding observations on the initial report

Concluding observations on the second periodic report

Concluding observations on the third periodic report

Reply of the Republic of Slovenia to Recommendations 9, 12, 17 and 21 in the Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture regarding the third periodic report

 

7.1 Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

 

The Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was signed on 18 December 2002, and entered into force on 22 June 2006. It has been in force in Slovenia since 1 January 2007 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 114/2006, 9 November 2006).

 

The Protocol establishes the Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture, an additional mechanism for overseeing detention and prison facilities at the national and international levels. By ratifying the Protocol, states parties are committed to setting up independent national preventive mechanisms for the prevention of torture (or designate existing mechanisms for this purpose) one year after the entry into force of the present Protocol or of its ratification or accession at the latest.

 

The Act ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, International Treaties No. 20/2006) stipulates that the national preventive mechanism is the Slovenian Human Rights Ombudsman, exercising the tasks and powers of the national preventive mechanism together with selected NGOs that have status of a humanitarian organisation in Slovenia. Such monitoring, which has been carried out since 2007, enhances effectiveness, frequency and professionalism in detecting and preventing torture and other forms of cruel treatment.

 

7.2 Declaration pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

 

In 1993, Slovenia submitted the Declaration pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment recognising the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from individuals within its jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation of any of the provisions of this Convention. The Committee is authorised to consider only complaints regarding which it ascertains that the same matter is not being addressed in any other international procedure or that all domestic legal remedies have been exhausted.

 

8. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted on 13 December 2006 in New York, and took effect on 3 May 2008. It has been in force in Slovenia since 24 April 2008.

 

The Convention is important historically, as it is the first legally binding UN instrument governing the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities, providing for the implementation of human rights, the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment and the prevention of discrimination of persons with disabilities. It pays special attention to the situation of disabled women and children, to the right to accessibility, equal recognition before the law, protection of the integrity of the person, living independently and being included in the community, respect for privacy, right to education, right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, habilitation and rehabilitation, work and employment, adequate standard of living and social protection, participation in political and public life, etc.

 

Article 34 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities established the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which, through the system of periodic reporting of states parties, monitors the implementation of the provisions of the Convention. The Committee is composed of eighteen independent experts, and its members act on their own behalf, independently of the government of their native country. States parties submit periodic reports to the Committee, which the Committee examines and then makes suggestions and recommendations.

 

Links:

Reports of the Republic of Slovenia on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities:

Initial report

 

8.1 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

 

The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted on 18 December 2006, and took effect on 8 May 2008. It has been in force in Slovenia since 24 April 2008. 

 

The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities establishes an individual complaints mechanism for citizens of a state party.

 

9. Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms


The Declaration, unanimously adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1998, is a historic achievement for ensuring better protection of human rights defenders. It is the first UN instrument to identify the importance and viability of the activities of human rights defenders and the need for ensuring their protection. The Declaration, which is not legally binding, grants, inter alia: the universal right to promote, and to strive for, the protection and realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels; to know, seek, obtain, receive and hold information about all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including having access to information as to how those rights and freedoms are realised in domestic legislative, judicial or administrative systems; to study, discuss, form and hold opinions on the observance, both in law and in practice, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms; to participate, individually and in association with others, in peaceful activities; to form, join and participate in non-governmental organisations, associations or groups, and to communicate with non-governmental or intergovernmental organisations. 

 

The Declaration also stipulates that each state has the prime responsibility and duty to protect, promote and implement all human rights and fundamental freedoms by, inter alia, any steps needed to create all the requisite conditions in the social, economic, political and other fields, as well as the legal guarantees required to ensure that all persons under its jurisdiction, individually and in association with others, are able to enjoy all those rights and freedoms in practice.