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Slovenia is a party to all of the most important international conventions on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and prohibition of other types of weapons of mass destruction, among others:

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was one of the first treaties to which Slovenia notified succession, after it gained independence. Slovenia has been a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency since 21 September 1992; it has been actively involved in IAEA activities in nuclear safety, the protection of nuclear material and radiation protection. In the period 1997–1999, Slovenia was a member of the Board of Governors for the first time, and held the chairmanship of the Board in the period 1998–1999. At the 49th IAEA General Conference in 2005, Slovenia was re-elected as a member of the Board of Governors; in September 2006, Dr Ernest Petrič, Permanent Representative of Slovenia to the IAEA and Ambassador of the Republic of Slovenia to the Republic of Austria, was elected Chair of the Board of Governors for a period of one year.

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which has not yet entered into force, was signed by Slovenia on 24 September 1996 and ratified on 31 August 1999.

In 1992, Slovenia became a successor to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) with the Act notifying succession to UN conventions.

In 1993, Slovenia was one of the first countries to sign the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC). Slovenia ratified the Convention in 1997 when it also entered into force. Slovenia was a member of the OPCW Executive Council from 2000 to 2002, and it has announced its candidature for the period 2010–2012. In 2006, the Strategic Materials Act was adopted, implementing both the BTWC and the CWC, as well as the guidelines of the Australia group.

Slovenia actively supports the international community’s endeavours to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; in 2000, the country became a member of two prominent international control regimes in this field: the Zangger Committee and the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Members of these two regimes, predominantly the most developed countries, harmonise their policies on the strengthening of control over strategic substances and technology that may be misused for the production of nuclear weapons. In 2004, Slovenia became a member of the Australia Group (AG), which brings together countries with high standards in export control over biological and chemical weapons and dual-use goods. The most concrete initiative for the fight against ballistic missile proliferation Slovenia has joined is the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC). Furthermore, since 2005, Slovenia has been committed to the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), in which presently more than 80 countries take part. Its basic purpose is to intercept illegal cargo containing weapons of mass destruction intended for terrorists or organised crime organisations.