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Development and economic issues:

  • The International Conference on Environment and Development (1992) saw the adoption by the developed countries of an arrangement on channelling 0.7% of GNI for official development assistance;

  • The Millennium Declaration (2000) adopted eight Millennium Development Goals;

  • The International Conference on Financing for Development (Monterrey, 2002) established partnership for development and adopted arrangements regarding the financing of measures to attain the Millennium Development Goals;

  • The Review Conference on Financing for Development (Doha, 2008) addressed the implementation of the Monterrey consensus in the light of global challenges, particularly the financial and economic crisis and the food supply crisis, the energy crisis and the consequences of climate change;

  • The UN World Summit Outcome Document (2005) confirmed the commitments of development conferences held to date with a view to enhancing the intensity and effectiveness of the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals; a timeline for an increase in the official development assistance to 0.5% GNI by 2009 and 0.7% by 2015 was also adopted;

  • The United Nations High Level Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and its Impact on Development (2009) dealt with the support provided to developing countries in facing the financial and economic crisis, and devoted particular attention to the poorest and most threatened developing countries;

  • The United Nations Review Conference on Millennium Development Goals (2010).

Sustainable development:

  • The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) adopted a number of important documents, including the Agenda 21, programme of activities linking the environment and development for the first time, the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Convention to Combat Desertification;

  • The Kyoto Protocol (adopted 1997 and entered into force 2005) is the first and currently the only functioning mechanism setting out commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for countries listed under Annex I;

  • The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) confirmed the need for integration, effectiveness and coordination of economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, and agreed to strengthen the international institutional framework for this purpose The Second Committee is currently holding negotiations on the envisaged meeting Rio+20 to be held in Brazil in 2012;

  • The UN Summit Outcome Document (2005) confirmed the commitments made to date and called on countries to implement the Kyoto Protocol and to start negotiations on the drafting of a comprehensive international agreement for the period after 2012;

  • The meeting of ad hoc working groups of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol (Copenhagen, 2009);

  • The UN Conference on Sustainable Development (2012).